Archive for January, 2016


Hollow Eyes Are Not Dark Circles Under The Eyes

By Brooke Seckel

Many people of all ages complain of dark circles under their eyes. The phrase dark circles under the eyes is used to describe a wide variety of different conditions, but the phrase dark circles under the eyes refers to a very specific anatomical condition of the lower eyelids that is easy to diagnose and readily corrected by modern techniques. However, many people who complain of dark circles under their eyes frequently have a condition more appropriately termed hollow eyes which is a distinct anatomical condition very different from dark circles under the eyes. Recognition of the hollow eye syndrome is very important because the technique frequently used to treat dark circles under the eyes does not correct the hollow eye look and can actually make the hollow eye syndrome worse.

To clearly understand the difference between the varying lower eyelid conditions which many people have and seek treatment for, it is important to understand the difference between Dark Eyelid Color, Puffy Lower Eyelids, Dark Circles Under the Eyes, Hollow Eyes, and Festoons:

Dark Eyelid Color- The color of the lower eyelids is darker than the surrounding facial skin on almost every human face. This is a normal condition. The dark lower eyelid color is caused by the fact that the lower eyelid skin is very thin, so thin that you can see through it. The eyelid muscle beneath the lower eyelid skin is a purple color, thus the purple color of the muscle shows through the thin eyelid skin and the lower eyelid looks darker than the surrounding skin. People often complain that the lower eyelid looks blue or purple. The fairer your skin, the thinner your lower eyelid skin and thus the darker your eyelids will appear. In many thin skinned individuals the veins running under the eyelid skin also show through the eyelid skin making the blue color more pronounced. This is a normal condition and cannot be treated. No laser, cream or surgery can correct this. The only solution is a concealer such as Dermablend or Cover mark.

Puffy Lower Eyelids- As we age many people notice that the lower eyelid skin becomes puffy or bulges outward. People often refer to this condition as bags under the eyes. Bags under the eyes is caused by a combination of weakness and sagging of the lower eyelid skin and tissues cased by aging changes, and protrusion of fat which lies beneath the lower eyelid skin and underneath the eyeball. Younger healthy lower eyelid skin and tissues normally are taut and prevent the fat from protruding, however with aging and laxity of the lower eyelid skin the fat pushes forward and protrudes, like a hernia. This condition, bags under the eyes or puffy eyelids is technically called fatty orbital herniation, that is a hernia of the fat which is normally contained in the orbit or eye socket. The Plastic Surgery operation called a lower eyelid blepharoplasty often includes removal or repositioning of the protruding fat to lessen the appearance of bags under the eyes.

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Dark Circles Under The Eyes- The phrase Dark Circles Under The Eyes refers to a dark depression below the lower eyelid which starts near the corner of the lower eyelid near the nose and runs along the cheek bone below the lower eyelid out towards the ear. Technically this is called the naso-jugal fold, and at advanced stages of facial aging runs into the Tear Trough Deformity, a dark depression that runs out and down the cheek towards the side of the face. The dark circle under the eye or naso-jugal fold is caused by a combination of factors. Most importantly the skin of the dark circle is tethered tightly to the underlying bone of the eye socket, called the orbital rim, by a ligament called the arcus marginalis. Since the skin of the dark circle is tethered to the bone, it cannot sag downward with the lower eyelid and cheek skin as the skin ages and becomes lax. Thus the lower eyelid skin as it sags and is pushed forward and down by the protruding lower eyelid fat, puffs and falls over the tethered dark circle and creates a dark shadow, the Dark Circle Under The Eye. The only truly effective technique to remove Dark Circles Under The Eyes is called arcus marginalis release with fat grafting or repositioning. During this procedure, the arcus marginalis is released from inside the lower eyelid and fat is placed beneath the dark circle to plump the dark circle and prevent the arcus marginalis from re-attaching and recreating the Dark Circle Under The Eyes.

Hollow Eyes- Hollow Eye Syndrome describes a condition in which the entire lower eyelid appears sunken in and can be a natural or normal human condition or can be caused by trauma or following a lower eyelid blepharoplasty during which too much lower eyelid fat has been removed. The primary cause of the normal Hollow Eye Syndrome is a congenital lack of orbital fat beneath the eyeball that allows the lower eyelid skin and tissue to sink in, or by an eye socket, also called the orbit, which is larger than normal and allows the lower eyelid, fat and tissues to sink in causing the Hollow Eye appearance. Abnormal Hollow Eye Syndrome occurs when too much fat has been removed during a blepharoplasty or when the bone beneath the eyeball has been broken, most commonly by a fist or baseball striking the eye, breaking the floor of the orbital bone and pushing the fat surrounding the eyeball through the break in the bone down into the sinus cavity beneath the bone. To correct the abnormal Hollow Eye Syndrome, either fat must be surgically replaced, or in the case of a fracture, the fat must be pulled back under the eye and the broken bone repaired.

In the case of normal Hollow Eye Syndrome, fat must be surgically replaced to correct the fat deficiency and in some patients, who have an unusually large eye socket because of a deficiency of the bone, an implant to must be placed to make up for the deficiency of the bone of the orbital rim at the top of the cheek bone. This implant is called a tear trough implant.

Festoons- Festoons are puffy skin on the cheeks which lie just below the lower eyelids, at the top of the cheeks and just below the Dark Circles Under The Eyes. Festoons are cheek skin, not lower eyelid skin, a very crucial distinction. Their primary importance is that they must be recognized, and you must know that they will not be improved or removed during a blepharoplasty. In fact, a blepharoplasty during which puffy eyelid fat is removed and lax lower eyelid skin is tightened will in fact make the festoons look more prominent and worse. Festoons are poorly understood and difficult to treat. Traditionally the only method was direct surgical excision and removal, however this method usually leaves unacceptable, visible scars on the cheeks. Sometimes a partial face-lift called a cheek lift can improve Festoons. Laser resurfacing can improve them, but the skin color becomes lighter which makes this method risky. Recently newer skin tightening methods using Infrared and Radiofrequency energy hold much promise.

In summary, the normal anatomical variation and the aging changes of the lower eyelids are very complex, and often poorly understood by both patients and many physicians. A proper and clear understanding of lower eyelid and cheek anatomy and the effects of aging on these areas is crucial if proper aesthetic correction of the lower eyelid is to be achieved. Newer eyelid rejuvenation therapy must employ techniques that address the intraorbital fat, the arcus marginalis, and the festoons if pleasing aesthetic results are to be achieved and serious deformity avoided. True Hollow Eye Syndrome requires fat volume replacement and in some cases implant placement to correct bony volume deficiency. It is important to distinguish Hollow Eyes from Dark Circles Under The Eyes because their correction requires decidedly different reconstructive techniques. The recognition of Festoons is very important because standard blepharoplasty eyelid rejuvenation techniques will make Festoons more noticeable.

Brooke R. Seckel, M.D., FACS

About the Author: Dr Brooke R. Seckel, Asst. Professor of Surgery at Harvard Medical School was recently named a Top Doctor in Boston by Boston Magazine. He is also listed as one of the Best Doctors in America. Dr Seckel is an internationally recognized expert in Plastic Surgery. Dr Seckels office is in Boston at 617-262-2208 or at


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Vivien Goldman: An interview with the Punk Professor

Wednesday, October 3, 2007 

Vivien Goldman recalls with a laugh the day in 1984 when she saw her death, but the laugh fades as she becomes lost in the memory. She was in Nigeria staying in Fela Kuti’s home; she had just arrived hours before and found people sleeping everywhere like house cats when Muhammadu Buhari’s army showed up to haul everyone to jail. Kuti was an opponent of the government who was in jail, and they came to arrest his coterie of supporters. They grabbed Goldman and were about to throw her in a truck until Pascal Imbert, Kuti’s manager, yelled out, “Leave her alone. She just arrived from Paris! She’s my wife! She knows nothing!

Goldman stops for a moment and then smiles plainly. “They thought I was just some stupid woman…. That time sexism worked in my favor.”

Vivien Goldman has become a living, teaching testimony of the golden era of punk and reggae. She is an adjunct professor at New York University who has taught courses on the music scene she was thrust in the middle of as a young public relations representative for Island Records. She writes a column for the BBC called “Ask the Punk Professor” where she extols the wisdom she gained as a confidant of Bob Marley; as the person who first put Flava Flav in video; as Chrissie Hynde’s former roommate; as the woman who worked with the The Clash, Sex Pistols, The Slits and The Raincoats.

As Wikinews reporter David Shankbone found out, Goldman is one of those individuals that when you sit in her presence you realize she simply can not tell you everything she knows or has seen, either to protect the living or to respect the dead.

DS: The first biography of Bob Marley, Soul Rebel, Natural Mystic, was written by you based upon your personal experiences with him, and you have recently written a book about Marley called The Book of Exodus. How difficult is it to continue to mine his life? Is it difficult to come up with new angles?

DS: You were there with Marley through that time when he really caught on; was it obvious to you then that there was something amazing and unique happening?

DS: Warhol’s Factory photographer, Billy Name, once told me he knew that what was going on was amazing, but he never thought Warhol would become the entire fabric of the art world as he is now.

DS: But Marley has become a fabric of sorts…

DS: How do you define punk?

DS: What is the commodified version of punk selling?

DS: That aesthetic is everywhere, as though if one spikes his hair he is punk.

DS: Your philosophy is that punk is not just musical, but also an aesthetic. That it can imbibe anything; that it stands for change and for changing a system. Let me give you a few names, and you to tell me how you think they are or are not punk. Britney Spears.

DS: Dick Cheney.

DS: Kanye West.

DS: Osama bin Laden.

DS: Is the definition of punk relative, then? He’s a Madrasah punk but not a Manhattan punk?

DS: Pete Doherty.

DS: If punk is about change, then why the maudlin sentimentality over the closing of CBGB’s, which at times turned into demonizing a homeless shelter?

DS: I felt it was what it was at a certain moment, but it wasn’t that anymore. They were charging eight dollars for a beer. That’s not very punk, and that wasn’t attracting the punk crowds. It was like people who move to the Bowery because they think it’s so edgy but it’s really a boulevard of glittering condos.

DS: Where do you think New York’s culture is going? There are so few places on Earth with such a large concentration of creatives who meet and influence each other, but the city is becoming less affordable and cleansed of any grit. Is there a place for punk in the Manhattan of the future?

DS: You’re friends with Flava Flav, right?

DS: At the time he wasn’t known?

DS: Do you think apathy is a problem today?

DS: What about G. G. Allin? He used to defecate on the stage to make a point.

DS: Well, he’s dead. Do you think people are afraid to speak out today?

DS: Is violence for the cause of social change punk?

DS: Sandra Bernhard once did an homage to what she called the Big-Tittied Bitches of Rock n’ Roll: Heart, Joan Jett, Stevie Nicks. She mourned that there were no big-tittied bitches left. Who are the big-tittied bitches of Rock n’ Roll today?

DS: Do you have moments of extreme self-doubt where you wonder if anything you do matters to anyone?

DS: You have worked for two corporations that are seen by many as the least punk in their respective communities, the BBC and NYU. How does one remain punk in such environments?

DS: Have you ever been in a situation where you feared for your life, where you thought, this may be the way I go?

DS: What happened to him in the secret jail?

DS: In Jamaica there was so much violence during the civil war.


Leading luxury businesses to form a joint venture

Tuesday, March 6, 2007 

Richemont and Polo Ralph Lauren decided to join their skills and rich experience in order to form a joint venture, the name of which is Polo Ralph Lauren Watch and Jewelry Company, S.A.R.L. The representatives of the global luxury business decided to unite their efforts in order to develop luxury timepieces and fine jewelry items.

After the new products are manufactured, they will be distributed through Ralph Lauren boutiques and independent retailers of jewelery items and luxury timepieces. The first jointly developed products are to appear in the fall of the following year.

Richemont and Polo Ralph Lauren will equally share 50 percent of the new joint venture. The partners hope for long-term cooperation. The union will be a completely new experience for both Richemont, which has never cooperated with a luxury fashion designer before, and Polo Ralph Lauren, which, until the present day, has not maintained any links with the precious jewelry and luxury watch businesses.

Ralph Lauren, holding the post of Polo Ralph Lauren’s Chairman and Chief Executive Officer , believes that the company’s experience in the area of designing and marketing luxury lifestyle products will blend with Richemont’s experience on a global scale.

Johann Rupert, owning the position of Richemont’s Executive Chairman counts on Ralph Lauren’s reputation and image based upon distinctive taste, style and attention to detail. He hopes that the newly formed joint venture will benefit from these factors, as well Richemont’s expertise in the area of jewelry and watches.